Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

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Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex intimate behavior

Every 2-minute period that were coded as containing one or more variety of sexual intercourse tracked in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, as well as other sexual behavior 2 had been additionally examined for the existence of same-sex intimate behavior. With this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted into the period took place between a couple regarding the sex that is same.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each interval that is 2-minute have been coded as containing a minumum of one example of talk through the sexual talk groups utilized in the key coding task ( e.g., remarks about own/others’ intimate actions or passions, mention sexual intercourse that includes currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) had been additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals. Because of this product, programmers once again used a yes/no response format to point whether some of the talk that is sexual the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such remarks pertaining to gays and lesbians, although periodically these people were connected with bisexuals.

Intimate remarks involving gay and references that are lesbian have purposes apart from portraying the intimate issues among these teams such as for instance use by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even tease someone else. Hence, criteria had been established to make sure that this product had been coded “yes” for an period only if speak about intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual problems of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the remarks were coded inside their appropriate talk that is sexual but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this product. As an example, if a male character had been to protect his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it is not like i am homosexual; i simply have not met the proper girl!” such a comment will have been coded in the primary coding task into the intimate talk category “own/others’ sexual passions or actions” because he produced mention of their intimate curiosity about ladies, nevertheless the mention of the maybe not being gay wouldn’t normally have counted toward an optimistic reaction to the item on speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems.

System Coding

Coder training

When it comes to year that is first content analysis, 16 pupils (10 females, 6 men) from regional universities served as programmers; when you look at the 2nd 12 months, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) who have been either present university students or current graduates carried out the information coding. Six of this programmers done both content analyses. The stages of coder training included orientation to your coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe maybe not into the sample with supervisors, and finally specific coding of training shows where programmers assessed shows independently after which talked about the outcomes period by period in weekly conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the specific training stage of training to ascertain whenever programmers could continue aided by the coding task that is actual. The dependability analyses presented below, however, connect xxxstreams.coom with assessments of coder contract acquired through the coding of the subset of programs into the system examples.

Coding procedures

Programmers viewed sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the existence or lack of intimate behavior and speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals. Given that coding had been restricted to system content and excluded commercials along with other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers plus the counters regarding the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute periods of system time. Programmers recorded information on scannable types for every period because they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in previous periods to know this content in later people), these people were maybe maybe not permitted to rule backwards (i.e., use information learned later in a scheduled program to return and alter the coding in a youthful period). All opening credits and the ones closing credits followed by content through the episode that is currenti.e., your final scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

About 11 to 12per cent for the programs when you look at the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 for the very very first and 2nd content analyses, correspondingly) had been arbitrarily assigned to two programmers for separate coding and reliability evaluation. After both programmers’ information have been recorded and analyzed for dependability purposes, the programmers then came across to solve any discrepancies within the two sets of reviews and create a last group of ranks for the show which was utilized in information analyses for the whole system test. Assessment of dependability ended up being carried out on a basis that is ongoing the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the complete system test every year. Programs out of each and every genre and each system kind had been within the dependability analyses. Genres were represented into the double-coded examples in approximate percentage with their representation within the general system examples.

For purposes of dependability assessment, the amount of 2-minute periods coded for every adjustable linked to intimate minorities had been summed throughout the periods in a episode to assess the regularity with which same-sex intimate behavior and mention nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas happened within each system episode. This summing lead to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) in the 2-minute-interval degree into regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of intervals for which same-sex intimate behavior took place the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance into the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information like the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized due to the fact criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion. The ICC for same-sex intimate behavior had been .97 in year 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual sexual dilemmas ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

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